The Electric Vehicles’ Recycling Process to Carbon Neutrality Mission in China Tends to Be Negative: Depending on the Technology Transition
Yajuan Yu 2,4
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School of Management and Economics, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Department of Energy and Environmental Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China
Beijing Institute of Technology Chongqing Innovation Center, Chongqing, 401120, China
Submission date: 2022-09-13
Final revision date: 2022-10-26
Acceptance date: 2022-12-06
Online publication date: 2023-01-30
Publication date: 2023-03-14
Corresponding author
Yajuan Yu   

Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(2):1941-1948
While electric vehicles are widely used, the number of waste lithium-ion batteries is increasing. The recycling and reproduction of materials with high environmental load is the key to the sustainable development of the electric vehicle power battery industry. This study conducted the life cycle assessment of CO2, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx emissions in the recycling stage of electric vehicles in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The relevant conclusions are: electric energy makes a great contribution to pollutant emission. When taking 1 kg as functional unit, the emissions of SO2 and NOx in the recovery process of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) power battery are lower than those of Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) battery, while CO2 and PM2.5 are opposite. When taking 1 kWh as the functional unit, NMC power battery has better recovery and emission reduction effect than LFP, because it has higher mass and energy density. In particular, the recovery of active materials plays a significant role in NMC battery emission reduction. For CO2, recycling does not bring better effects on emission reduction. To achieve carbon neutrality, the recycling process must be optimized. However, for PM2.5, SO2, and NOx, recycling can in turn help reduce emissions in the production process, and the value is more obvious.
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