Circadian and Seasonal Changes in Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Worker Susceptibility to Pyrethroids
Bartosz Piechowicz1, Przemysław Grodzicki2, Kinga Stawarczyk3, Iwona Piechowicz4, Michał Stawarczyk1, Aneta Zwolak1
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1Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Science, Department of Ecotoxicology, University of Rzeszow,
Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa, Poland
2Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Department of Animal Physiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University
Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
3Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Science, Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow
Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa, Poland
4Communal Office in Niwiska, Niwiska 430, 36-147 Niwiska, Poland
Submission date: 2015-11-28
Final revision date: 2016-01-31
Acceptance date: 2016-01-31
Publication date: 2016-05-25
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2016;25(3):1177–1185
We examined the susceptibility of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera L. to pyrethroids. Bees were intoxicated by selected synthetic pyrethroids (active substances: beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, and bifenthrin) and 72 hours after intoxication the number of surviving insects was determined. It was observed that the susceptibility of the honeybee to pyrethroids (expressed herein as the survival rate) was changing in diurnal rhythm, ranging from 100% (for a majority of substances in both seasons) to 11.1±0.37% (deltamethrin) and 11.1±0.73% (esfenvalerate) in spring, and 11.1±0.73% (esfenvalerate) and 4.6±0.17% (bifenthrin) in summer. The lowest susceptibility of bees to pyrethroids occurred during the night, when the honeybees were characterized by reduced motility and did not fly out for foraging, whereas the highest susceptibility was observed during the day, a natural time for seeking food. Along with diurnal changes in the susceptibility described above, differences dependent on the seasons in which the intoxication took place were also observed. Insects intoxicated in summer were less susceptible to pyrethroids than those intoxicated in spring.