Comparative Studies of Lead and Heavy Metals Concentrations in Pakistan Soil and Its Toxic Effects
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Department of Chemistry, University of Education Township, Lahore
Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, DHA Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, GC University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Shabbir Hussain   

Lahore Garrison University Lahore, Pakistan
Submission date: 2018-11-04
Final revision date: 2019-03-08
Acceptance date: 2019-03-28
Online publication date: 2020-03-03
Publication date: 2020-04-21
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(4):2533–2542
A study was conducted to determine qualitative and quantitative lead contamination in soil along two major roadsides (Motorway M-2 and National Highway N-5) of Thokar Niaz Baaig (TNB) in Lahore, and adjoining areas of the Hudiara drain in Pakistan by employing the digestion method using HCl/HNO3 at 1:4. The characterization of lead (Pb) was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. High deposition of lead was observed along the soil of linking roads of rather populated towns of Lahore, Pakistan, and the soil irrigated by the wastewater of Hudiara drain. The lead contents originated mainly from vehicular emissions, urban pollution and industrial effluents, and may lead to a rise of lead levels in the vegetation of associated areas. The present study also explores a comparison of heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ti) concentrations in different areas of Pakistan and its adverse effects on plant growth. There is a need to strictly monitor the water quality in the Hudiara drain; its wastewater should be avoided for irrigation purposes. Some fungal strains can also be used to control the heavy metal concentration in such polluted water. However, some beneficial effects of Hudiara drain wastewater as a nutritional source for plants have also been suggested. It is important to establish the proper nutrition conditions in areas of contaminated soil.