Effect of Petroleum-Derived Substances and their Bioremediation on Triticum aestivum L. Growth and Chemical Composition
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Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland
Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Submission date: 2018-02-15
Final revision date: 2018-05-21
Acceptance date: 2018-05-29
Online publication date: 2019-01-23
Publication date: 2019-03-01
Corresponding author
Janina Gospodarek   

Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, University of Agriculture, al. A. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow, Poland, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(4):2131–2137
The aim of our studies was to determine the follow-up (four years after the soil contamination) effect of petroleum derived substances (PDSs), e.g., spent engine oil (EO), diesel fuel (DF), and petrol (P) on the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and on the content of nutrients and heavy metals in plant leaves. We also evaluated the supportive effect of bioremediation by the use of ZB-01 biopreparation upon the parameters mentioned above. In general, the studied PDSs had not affected the growth of winter wheat, which is indicative of its relative resistance toward this kind of contaminant. PDSs significantly modified the contents of some nutrients in plant leaves: soil contamination with DF resulted in a decrease in sulphur content, but contamination with P led to the increase in carbon content with a simultaneous decrease in iron content in the analysed organs of plants. Furthermore, oils contributed to the increase in the manganese content in plants. The contaminants used in the experiments contributed to the increases in the contents of such heavy metals, i.e., zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper in the leaves of winter wheat; nevertheless, this phenomenon depended on the kind of PDSs, with stronger effects caused by oils. The application of ZB-01 biopreparation on soil contaminated with PDSs evoked changeable effects depending on the kind of contaminant and the analysed parameter. It generally resulted in levelling the negative effects of EO and DF.