Essential Oil Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell
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Rangeland and Watershed Management Department Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Food Chemistry and Nutraceutical Lab, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Urbino “Carlo Bo” - Piazza Rinascimento, 6, 61029 Urbino PU, Italy
UniCamillus-Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Via di Sant’Alessandro, 800131 Rome, Italy
Submission date: 2022-11-11
Final revision date: 2023-02-24
Acceptance date: 2023-03-04
Online publication date: 2023-05-10
Publication date: 2023-06-23
Corresponding author
Fuad O. Abdullah   

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University – Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Iraq, Kirkuk road., 44001, erbil, Iraq
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(4):3043–3052
In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, the antibacterial activity, and the antioxidant properties of extracts obtained from the leaves, flowers, and fruits of Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell. The antioxidant effects of the methanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant, obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, were estimated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods. The essential oils were chemically characterized by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID). Thirty compounds were identified, with 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, aromadendrene, globulol and α-phellandrene being the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oils were tested against several bacterial isolates, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia Coli, using the disc diffusion method. All the essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed for Escherichia coli, with the fruit essential oil in the concentration (100 μL). There was no significant antioxidant activity in the essential oils, while the extracts exhibited considerable antioxidant effects in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In this regard, the flower extract showed the highest antioxidant activity in both DPPH (IC50 = 21.5±0.2 μg/mL) and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests (Inhibition (%) = 84.3±0.7). Finally, the fruit essential oil exerts a significant antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains and exhibits a significant antioxidant effect in the β-carotene/linoleic acid tests, thus it may represent an innovative nutraceutical tool able to act on bacteria and host oxidative stress related to infections.