Health Risk Assessment via AirQ+ Modelling in Faisalabad and Adaptive Management Framework
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College of Earth and Environmental Sciences. University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan
Department of Physics, Kohsar University, Murree 47118, Pakistan
Submission date: 2023-05-15
Final revision date: 2023-06-15
Acceptance date: 2023-06-16
Online publication date: 2023-10-27
Publication date: 2023-11-10
Corresponding author
Sajid Rashid Ahmad   

College of Earth and Environmental Sciences. University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(6):5763–5771
The study was conducted in a major industrial city in Pakistan (Faisalabad) with a population of 3.2 million. Air quality data was monitored for a whole year using United States Environmental Protection Agency certified instruments, while the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended AirQ+ model was used to assess the human health risks of air pollutants. The annual mean concentration of NO2 (13.6 μg/m3) was within the permissible limits of Punjab Environmental Quality Standards (PEQS) (40 μg/m3), but the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 was above both standard limits (106.1 μg/m3). As per the model, contribution of PM10 and PM2.5 to newborn mortality was 39.7% and 43.9%. Precisely, Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) in children under 5 years of age group was significantly high due to PM2.5 i.e., 44.6%. Overall, PM2.5 was found to be significantly affecting the mortality rates, including causing a high number of deaths due to natural causes, ALRI in children under 5, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in those aged 30 or older, and stroke. Based on the findings of the study, it is strongly recommended that comprehensive measures and interventions be implemented to effectively reduce the elevated levels of PM2.5 in Faisalabad to mitigate the adverse health effects, particularly the increased mortality rates and respiratory illnesses observed in vulnerable populations such as children under 5 and individuals aged 30 or older.