Influence of Land Use on the Content of Select Forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Urban Soils
Andrzej Plak, Jacek Chodorowski, Jerzy Melke, Małgorzata Bis
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Department of Soil Science and Protection, Maria Curie Sklodowska University,
Kraśnicka av. 2CD, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2014-07-17
Final revision date: 2015-08-29
Acceptance date: 2015-08-31
Publication date: 2015-11-27
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2015;24(6):2577–2586
Cities are areas where soils are strongly transformed and heavy metals occur in high concentrations as a result of direct human activity, the influence of industrial and municipal buildings, industrial activity, and transportation. The purpose of this study is to determine the total and bioavailable concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in urban soils of Lublin, Poland, and to estimate the relationships between their contents and different types of land use. The total contents of these metals do not exceed the limits permissible in Poland, and for comparison also in Holland and Germany. The heavy metal contents in the Lublin urban soils are similar to those occurring in other cities in Poland and in the world. The distribution of their total and bioavailable concentrations in urban soils indicates that soil contamination by heavy metals is mostly caused by industry and motor traffic. The proportion of total heavy metals that is bioavailable, being the indicator of its mobility, is the highest for Zn and Cd.