Relations between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Serum Levels of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lea
S. Turgut1, S. Hacioglu2, G. Emmungil1, G. Turgut1, A. Keskin2
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1Department of Physiology, Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
2Department of Internal Medicine, Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2009;18(2):273–277
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common nutritional deficiency syndrome. Lead and cadmium are major hazard elements to humans in industrialized countries. Zinc and copper are essential and play important roles in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. The aim of our study was to determine levels of serum Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb in IDA patients, and to investigate the relationship between these elements and IDA.
This study was performed on 141 adults (age 18-40 years) living in the Denizli region of Turkey. Iron deficiency anemia was observed in 81 individuals; 60 healthy persons (without anemia) were regarded as controls. Blood samples were collected from subjects into without anticoagulant tubes free from Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and sera were obtained. Element levels of serum were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study took place in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in 2005.
The levels of lead in serum were significantly (p<0.001) higher in adults with IDA than controls. Serum copper and zinc concentration of the IDA group were not found to significantly (p>0.05) differ from the control group. Cadmium level in IDA group appeared to be higher than control, but not significantly (p>0.05) different from that of the control group. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell, ferritin and iron levels in subjects with IDA were significantly (p<0.001) lower than control.
Serum lead concentration is high in IDA subjects versus healthy individuals. So it can be said that lead exposure may be a risk factor for the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in humans. In addition, it can be said that iron deficiency may increase susceptibility to lead poisoning because it has been speculated that iron deficiency can cause increased absorption of lead.