Source Analysis of Black Carbon with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Sediments and Soils and its Heath Risk Assessment from Chan & Ba River Drainage Basin of China
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School of Environment and Chemistry Engineering, Xi’an Polytechnic University, China
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Zhihai Tan   

School of Environment and Chemistry Engineering, Xi’an Polytechnic University, China
Submission date: 2022-06-26
Final revision date: 2022-10-07
Acceptance date: 2022-10-21
Online publication date: 2022-12-19
Publication date: 2023-01-12
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(1):773–787
Potential risks to people’s health should receive much more attention with an increasing compound pollution in urban river ecological landscape. In this paper, the concentrations of 8 heavy metals (HMs, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, As and Pb), black carbon (BC, char and soot) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in soils and river sediments collected from 72 sampling sites along the Chan-Ba River, and also were evaluated, concerning source analysis and health risks. The results indicate that the concentrations of BC and PAHs varied seasonally, and the concentration of HMs showed little seasonal variation. The concentration of BC was higher in winter than in summer, while that of PAHs was higher in summer than in winter. These pollutants were spatial heterogeneity. The concentrations of these pollutants in the middle reaches of the Ba River were much higher than those in the upper and lower reaches. These changes are attributed to the spatial-temporal distribution of local pollutant emissions and the characteristics of regional pollutant transportation and deposition. Source and cluster analysis revealed that BC, HMs and PAHs were pyrogenic (including coal and biomass combustions, vehicular emissions). The evaluation of health risk of PAHs and HMs revealed that the cancer risk for adults and children was higher than the 10-6 and lower than 10-4 implying low to moderate risk, and it is noted that there are higher potential risks of Phe and Flu at the middle reaches in summer and As at the lower reaches in Autumn. Therefore, pollution prevention and monitoring, classification management and control mechanisms in designated river basins are necessary to ensure the quality and safety of the ecological environment in the Chan & Ba River basin.