ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Detection of Frequently Used Pesticides in Apple Orchard Soil in China by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Rongguang Shi 1  
,  
Li Yuan 2  
,  
Mingli Chen 2  
,  
Xiangqun Zheng 1  
,  
Xiaowei Liu 1  
,  
Yujie Zhao 1  
,  
Aifeng Liu 3  
,  
Jiaojiao Jia 3  
,  
Mengmeng Xu 3  
,  
Zongshan Zhao 3, 4  
 
 
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1
Key Laboratory for Environmental Factors Control of Agro-Product Quality Safety, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin, P.R. China
2
Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, P.R. China
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, P.R. China
4
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Zongshan Zhao   

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Online publish date: 2019-10-07
Submission date: 2019-01-17
Final revision date: 2019-03-21
Acceptance date: 2019-04-14
 
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ABSTRACT
In this study, 10 frequently used pesticides in apple orchards from the major apple production area of China were identified through 150 questionnaires. Based on Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry, a method for detecting these pesticides in soils was developed. Typically, these compounds can be extracted from dry soil samples using dichloromethane: acetone (2:1, v:v) and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (PSA and C18). The qualitative and quantitative analyses can be undertaken by monitoring the MS1 precursor ions under full scan mode within a mass error of <5 ppm (resolution 120000). The recoveries ranged from 68.4% to 102.4% (SD<10.5%), the matrix effects induced signal fluctuation was less than 10%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions were all below 5%. For 14 surface soil samples randomly collected from an apple orchard in China, most pesticides presented the highest detection frequencies (100%), with imidacloprid and tebuconazole showing the highest residue levels (4.1-39.1 and 9.8-350.2 ng/g dry weight, respectively). Compared with previous methods for analyzing individual or several pesticides, the proposed method represents a promising means of investigating these frequently used pesticide residues in apple orchards in China.
eISSN:2083-5906
ISSN:1230-1485