Detection of Frequently Used Pesticides in Apple Orchard Soil in China by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Rongguang Shi 1  
,   Li Yuan 2  
,   Mingli Chen 2  
,   Xiangqun Zheng 1  
,   Xiaowei Liu 1  
,   Yujie Zhao 1  
,   Aifeng Liu 3  
,   Jiaojiao Jia 3  
,   Mengmeng Xu 3  
,   Zongshan Zhao 3, 4  
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Key Laboratory for Environmental Factors Control of Agro-Product Quality Safety, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin, P.R. China
Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, P.R. China
CAS Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, P.R. China
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Zongshan Zhao   

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Submission date: 2019-01-17
Final revision date: 2019-03-21
Acceptance date: 2019-04-14
Online publication date: 2019-10-07
Publication date: 2020-01-16
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(2):1341–1350
In this study, 10 frequently used pesticides in apple orchards from the major apple production area of China were identified through 150 questionnaires. Based on Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry, a method for detecting these pesticides in soils was developed. Typically, these compounds can be extracted from dry soil samples using dichloromethane: acetone (2:1, v:v) and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (PSA and C18). The qualitative and quantitative analyses can be undertaken by monitoring the MS1 precursor ions under full scan mode within a mass error of <5 ppm (resolution 120000). The recoveries ranged from 68.4% to 102.4% (SD<10.5%), the matrix effects induced signal fluctuation was less than 10%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions were all below 5%. For 14 surface soil samples randomly collected from an apple orchard in China, most pesticides presented the highest detection frequencies (100%), with imidacloprid and tebuconazole showing the highest residue levels (4.1-39.1 and 9.8-350.2 ng/g dry weight, respectively). Compared with previous methods for analyzing individual or several pesticides, the proposed method represents a promising means of investigating these frequently used pesticide residues in apple orchards in China.