Effects of Increasing Soil Fluoride on the Growth of Vegetation in the Vicinity of Brick Kilns: A Case Study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Rida Bano 1  
,   Umer Khayyam 1  
,   Sofia Khalid 2  
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Department of Development Studies, School of Social Sciences and Humanities (S3H), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Environmental Sciences Department, Fatima Jinnah Women University (FJWU), Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Rida Bano   

National University of Science and Technology
Submission date: 2018-08-25
Final revision date: 2018-12-06
Acceptance date: 2018-12-15
Online publication date: 2019-12-16
Publication date: 2020-02-13
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(2):1535–1544
Increased fluoride emissions from brick kilns has affected the existence of plant species near brick kilns in Rawalpindi. For this purpose, six mesocosms in cardboard boxes were prepared, out of which two cardboard boxes were allocated as controls (no treatment given); while in four other cardboard box treatments of sodium fluoride, NaF was given. Fluoride concentrations of 30 ppm and 50 ppm were given to three different species of plants, i.e., Conyza Canadensis, Artemisia Absinthium and Cannabis Sativa. This study has evaluated the performance of different plants. The evaluation is done on several parameters such as chlorophyll level, carotenoid content and ascorbic acid. Similarly, other parameters checked are relative water content, above and below biomass, plant height, area of leaves and the number of leaves. Results showed that above- and below-ground biomass showed significant decreases in all selected species. Conyza Canadensis at 30 ppm and 50 ppm fluoride showed the greatest percentage reduction of leaf area with respect to control, i.e., 46.84% and 42.63%, respectively. Cannabis Sativa showed the greatest reduction in chlorophyll at 30 ppm (74.63%) and 50 ppm (59.73%). While artemisia absinthium did not show a significant decrease in both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.