Farmers’ Awareness about Impacts of Reusing Wastewater, Risk Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Faisalabad District, Pakistan
Muhammad Tayyab Sohail 1  
,   Xuan Lin 2  
,   Liang Lizhi 1  
,   Muhammad Rizwanullah 1,   Muhammad Nasrullah 1,   Yu Xiuyuan 1  
,   Zaira Manzoor 3  
,   Randriamihanta Jery Elis 4
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School of Public Administration, Xiangtan University, Hunan Xiangtan, 411105 P.R. China
School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences Wuhan, 430000 P.R. China
School of Economics, Shandong University Jinan, 250000 P.R. China
Department of Law, Central South University, Changsha, 410000 P.R. China
Muhammad Tayyab Sohail   

School of Public Administration, Xiangtan University Hunan China, China
Submission date: 2021-02-07
Final revision date: 2021-03-09
Acceptance date: 2021-03-15
Online publication date: 2021-09-01
Publication date: 2021-09-22
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(5):4663–4675
Water scarceness is the most critical problem for numerous arid and semi-arid areas. It leads to the use of wastewater in many countries. This study was aimed to determine the farmer’s awareness about reusing wastewater in their risk perception and adaptation to climate change in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. Faisalabad has become an industrial hub and industrial discharge is becoming problematic for local community and environment. Usually, farmers depend on wastewater for agriculture purposes in many aspects. The present study was divided into two phases, in the first phase a questionnairebased study was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas while in the second phase, wastewater quality parameters were determined (pH, SS, TDS, BOD, COD, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc) and compared with Pakistan Environmental Quality Standards. Results indicated that farmers had a strong awareness (96.8%) about fertility value of wastewater for many aspects, but they were unaware (71.6%) about health hazard of untreated wastewater used for crop irrigation. In the current study correlation of Determining of Climate Change (DCC) with age and farming experience was highly significant with correlation values 0.48 and 0.40 respectively. Adaption Measures (AM) correlation values with age and farming experience were 0.49 and 0.75 respectively. Other variables livelihood Assets (LA) was also correlated with Determining of Climate Change (DCC) and Adaption Measures (AM) and all variables were found significant week to moderate correlation among all selected variables. Farmers (>70%) used different techniques to adapt to climate change like irrigation, seeds, fertilizer and crops. Industrial and sewage wastewater quality of Faisalabad showed higher values than PEQs, creating an alarming situation for local people’s health and environment. High metal pollution index (<1000) showed the heavy effluent discharge from industries and putting pressure on groundwater resources as well. It is strongly recommended that water should be treated prior to reuse for irrigation. This study will help to ensure proper monitoring, develop and implementation of public policies for integrated and sustainable water management to minimize the health hazards in district Faisalabad.