Manganese Content in Biomass of Spring Wheat, Soil, and Soil Effluents after Fertilization with Municipal Sewage Sludge and Compost of Municipal Wastes
Krzysztof Gondek, Małgorzata Koncewicz-Baran
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Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, University of Agriculture,
Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2011;20(6):1481–1489
Our investigations aimed at determining the content of manganese in spring wheat biomass, soil, and soil effluents after fertilization with municipal sewage sludge and compost of municipal wastes. The investigations were conducted for three years as a pot experiment on soil material with granulometric composition of medium silt loam. The sewage sludge was stabilized and originated from a municipal mechanical-biological treatment plant. It was manufactured of plant and other biodegradable wastes using MUT-Kyberferm technology. During the three-year period of the experiment, on non-limed and limed soil only fertilization with municipal sewage sludge produced a better effect, apparent as the amount of wheat grain biomass, in comparison with mineral salt treatment, farmyard manure and composts of plant wastes. Fertilization with farmyard manure, sewage sludge and compost did not modify significantly manganese concentrations in wheat grain, straw, and roots. Soil liming had a better effect on manganese content in wheat. The content of mobile manganese forms was significantly higher in the non-limed soil, irrespective of the applied fertilization. In both experimental series (0 Ca and + Ca) the greatest number of mobile manganese forms was found in the soil of the mineral treatment. Among the treatments where fertilizers were used, the biggest amounts of manganese in the soil effluents (from both experimental series), were assessed after the application of compost from plant wastes. Liming had a crucial influence on diminishing manganese concentration in water draining away from soil.