Morphological Variability between Geographical Provenances of Walnut Fruit (Juglans mandshurica) in the Eastern Liaoning Province, P.R. China
Lijie Zhang 1, 2  
,   Xiujun Lu 1, 2  
,   Qiang Zhou 1  
,   Jifeng Deng 1, 2  
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College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China
Key Laboratory of Forest Tree genetics and Breeding of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China
Jifeng Deng   

College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural Univeristy, China
Submission date: 2020-10-05
Final revision date: 2020-12-10
Acceptance date: 2020-12-18
Online publication date: 2021-05-21
The eastern Liaoning Province of China has rich morphological diversity in walnut fruit, which is beneficial for selecting promising characters for marketability purposes. However, only a few reports have addressed morphological diversity in this region. In this study, J. mandshurica nuts and kernels from six geographical provenances were assessed for morphological traits, such as nut longitudinal diameter, nut lateral diameter, nut transverse diameter, mean diameter, nut weight, kernel weight, shell thickness, nut sutural thickness, kernel percentage, and index of roundness. Morphological traits proved to be quite variable and showed differences both within and among the geographical provenances. The frequency distribution of the traits had single peaks and followed a normal distribution. Principal component analysis revealed that 81.062% of the total variance was explained by the first three components. An unweighted PGM with averaging cluster analysis divided the geographical provenances into two groups; cluster I, containing five geographical provenances, and cluster II, containing only one. The study highlighted that the traits related to nut weight were of importance for discrimination, and Fushun is the optimal geographical provenance for breeding and selection. This study could provide a basis and reference for further understanding of the genetic resources of Juglans mandshurica fruit types.