Phytotoxicity of Enrofloxacin Soil Pollutant to Narrow-Leaved Lupin Plant
Barbara Adomas1, Joanna Antczak-Marecka1, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki2, Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak3
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1Department of Air Protection and Environmental Toxicology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
2Department of Environmental Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
3Department of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2013;22(1):71–76
Drugs used in human and veterinary medicine belong to a new class of environmental pollutants. Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics may produce biological effects at very low concentrations. Moreover, the continuous exposure of bacteria to even small concentrations of antibiotics or active metabolites could lead to the emergence of resistant bacteria strains. Antibiotics may also have high biological activity against non-target organisms as plants. Biotests, opposite of instrumental (chemical) methods, allow estimation of whether very low levels of active substance residues in the soil can be phytotoxic to crop plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biogenic amines content in lupin seedlings as affected by different enrofloxacin concentrations in soil. With increasing enrofloxacin concentrations the root growth was inhibited more severely and dry mass increased slightly but steadily. At the highest enrofloxacin concentration, the dry mass of both roots and stems did not exceed 15% fresh mass. The lowest content of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) was observed in seedlings growing in the soil without enrofloxacin, the highest in those growing in soil containing 50 mM of the antibiotic. The speed of RFO mobilization during germination was a good indicator of elongation in seedlings. A lowered RFO content during germination was correlated with an increase in glucose, galactose, and sucrose content. Spermine, spermidine, and putrescyne were detected in roots. The total biogenic amine content ranged 7-105 μM·g-1 fresh mass. The results showed, that the biogenic amine profiles seem to be good parameters for the qualification of plant products.