Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils in Industrial Areas: Concentration and Risks to Humans Health
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Pan-European University “Apeiron”, Pere Krece 13, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia & Hercegovina
PSRI Institute for Protection and Ecology of the Republic of Srpska, Vidovdanska 43, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
Predrag Ilić   

PSRI Institute for Protection and Ecology of the Republic of Srpska, Banja Luka, Vidovdanska 43, 78000, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Submission date: 2021-02-16
Final revision date: 2021-05-13
Acceptance date: 2021-05-19
Online publication date: 2021-11-24
Soil samples were collected in an industrial area (Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina) and analyzed the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentration of 16 PAHs in surface soil varied within the range of 0.599-2.848 mg/kg and in deeper layer soil samples 0.041-0.320 mg/kg. Two basic sources of PAHs at this location are: pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were used to calculate BaPeq in order to evaluate carcinogenic risk of soil contamination with PAHs. The total BaPeq of seven carcinogenic PAHs in surface soil and deeper soil layer were in the range 23.270-368.63 μg/kg (mean of 151.223 μg/kg), and 15.71-80.24 μg/kg, (mean of 48.08 μg/kg), respectively. These indicated that PAHs in this industrial soil presented relatively high toxicity potential. This study identifies the concentration and estimation of the potential cancer risk caused by contact with soils for adults, adolescents and children. In accordance with the estimated values of incremental life cancer risks (ILCRs), the cancer risk resulting from contact with the contaminated surface soil should be considered high (total ILCR>10-3). The results suggest that current PAHs concentration highly carcinogenic and may hold a serious health risk for local residents and employees.