Spatio-Temporal Variation Characteristics of Summer Precipitation in China and Its Response to ENSO
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College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Centre of Bayannur, Inner Mongolia, Bayannur 015000, China
Submission date: 2023-03-28
Final revision date: 2023-05-21
Acceptance date: 2023-06-16
Online publication date: 2023-09-01
Publication date: 2023-10-25
Corresponding author
Long Ma   

Inner Mongolia Agriculture University, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(6):4981–4993
This article was to reveal the spatio-temporal variation of summer precipitation in China and its response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results showed that the precipitation increased in 1900 s~1950 s, then decreased in 1960 s~1970 s, and increased in 1980 s~2010 s again. In space, it presented a "five-layered sandwich structure" featuring rising-falling-rising-falling-rising from northwest to southeast. The precipitation was generally less when ENSO occurred, but there were differences in intensities, regions, and so on. For example, When El Niño (all types) occurred, there was more precipitation in the western Continental Basin and the southern Huaihe River Basin, but less in the Yellow River Basin. When the extremely strong and medium La Niña occurred, the precipitation was more in the central and less in the north and the south. When the weak La Niña occurred, the precipitation increased in the northwest, decreased in the southeast, and vice versa for the extremely weak La Niña. Precipitation and Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) were negatively correlated in time, however, in space, there was a negative correlation in the north, and a positive correlation in the south, the dividing line was approximately at 29°N. In addition, the correlation between precipitation and ONI was proportional to the intensity of ENSO.