ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Synthesis of Novel Core-Shell Magnetic Fe3O4@C Nanoparticles with Carboxyl Function for Use as an Immobilisation Agent to Remediate Lead-Contaminated Soils
Chuang Ma 1  
,   Fu-Yong Liu 1  
,   Ming-Bao Wei 1, 2  
,   Ji-Hong Zhao 2  
,   Hong-Zhong Zhang 2  
 
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1
School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, China
2
Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, China
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Hong-Zhong Zhang   

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, China
Submission date: 2019-05-19
Final revision date: 2019-07-22
Acceptance date: 2019-07-24
Online publication date: 2020-02-06
Publication date: 2020-03-31
 
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(3):2273–2283
 
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ABSTRACT
In this study, a carbon shell was coated on Fe3O4 nanoparticles using a hydrothermal method followed by modification of carboxyl end groups on the Fe3O4@C to form Fe3O4@C-COOH for creating an immobilisation agent for remediating lead-contaminated soils. The surface of an Fe3O4@C nanoparticle was successfully covered with carboxyl end groups. The Fe3O4 core possessed the superparamagnetism property; the carbon shell protected the core from being oxidised or dissolved in acid solution, and provided good modifiability. Due to the strong interaction between lead and carboxyl end groups, this synthesised remediation agent exhibited high adsorption capacity. The Fe3O4@C-COOH nanoparticles principally promoted the transformation of lead (Pb) from a reducible to residual state, while having no obvious effect on the oxidation state of the lead. The amount of Fe3O4@C-COOH and the composition of soil organic matter had a higher influence on Pb distribution than soil pH, water content, or conductivity. Under optimal immobilisation conditions, the fractionation of the Pb acid-soluble, reducible, oxidative, and residual states in the contaminated soil changed significantly. The leaching and migration of Pb were significantly reduced, thus achieving remediation of lead-contaminated soils by immobilisation. Thus, remediation of lead-contaminated soils via Fe3O4@C-COOH immobilisation is a potentially practical and technologically feasible method.
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ISSN:1230-1485