Evaluation of Cadmium and Copper Levels in Food Chain Under Arid Regions of Punjab, Pakistan
More details
Hide details
Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
College of Geographical Sciences, Faculty of Carbon Neutral Future Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350117, China
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
Faculty of Education, Usak University, Usak, Turkey
Department of Zoology, Queen Mary College, Lahore, Pakistan
Submission date: 2023-06-08
Final revision date: 2023-10-29
Acceptance date: 2023-11-14
Online publication date: 2024-02-08
Publication date: 2024-03-18
Corresponding author
Naila Riaz   

University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, 40100, Sargodha, Pakistan
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2024;33(3):2535-2551
Heavy metals pollution is a major concern on a global scale. The present work evaluated the cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) concentrations in water, soil, forages (Avena sativa, Brassica campestris, Medicago sativa, Pennisetum glaucum and Trifolium alexandrinum), milk and hair samples of cows. The samples taken according to trophic levels of the food chain were collected from selected arid regions of Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan and analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Cd and Cu were found in the range of 0.041-0.065 mg/L, 0.585-1.341 mg/L in water; 0.223-2.600 mg/kg, 11.550-15.853 mg/kg in soil; 0.0037-0.682 mg/kg, 3.0917-8.208 mg/kg in fodder; 0.0457-0.137 mg/kg, 0.0167-0.690 mg/L in milk and 0.043-0.112 mg/kg, 0.0427-0.497 mg/kg in hair, respectively. The Cd and Cu concentrations in water, soil, forage, milk and hair were safer compared to standard limits. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), Enrichment factor (EF), Daily Intake of Metal (DIM), and Health Risk Index (HRI) were found less than 1 in Cd and Cu whereas PLI<1 in Cd and PLI>1 in Cu that indicates copper pollution in soil. So, regular monitoring of heavy metals was required to appraise contamination levels in the environment.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top