The Unseen Drivers of Coral Health; Coral Microbiome; The Hope for Effective Coral Restoration
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Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, 178 Daxue Road, Siming District, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China
Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt
Submission date: 2021-05-18
Final revision date: 2021-07-07
Acceptance date: 2021-08-07
Online publication date: 2021-12-31
Publication date: 2022-02-16
Corresponding author
Hala F Mohamed   

Third institute of oceonography, Daxue Road, 361005, Xiamen, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(2):989-1006
Coral restoration is important in ocean engineering because corals play a crucial role for sustainable marine ecosystems and in global carbon cycle. Coral microbiome controls the host life and functions by occupying different coral components such as tissue, skeleton, mucus and surrounding water. They work together as a complementary community to create the circle of healthy life for coral reefs. In addition to their role in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, metabolism and defence, their pattern of abundance and diversity shapes coral resilience and adaptation to the changing environment. As coral reefs are facing a tremendous decline by climate change and human activities, we here review the motors shifting the pattern of natural coral microbiome, and how this microbiome shift could affect coral health or drive coral adaptation to both climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. The available coral restoration techniques and their limitations are also discussed, particularly the new arising trend of coral restoration through coral microbiome. After presenting the high value of microbial community in maintaining coral reef health, we suggest that coral restoration through their microbiome could be a self-sustaining tool in fighting worldwide coral decline and urge scientist to draw more attention toward this new approach.
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