Appraisal of Acute Oral LD50 of Flonicamid and Ameliorative Effects of Selected Vitamins on Hepato Toxicity of Exposed Rabbits
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College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex Lahore, Pakistan
Muafia Shafiq   

CEES, university of the Punjab Pakistan, 54590, Lahore, Pakistan
Submission date: 2021-05-08
Final revision date: 2021-07-13
Acceptance date: 2022-04-25
Online publication date: 2022-08-08
Publication date: 2022-09-28
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(5):4829–4836
Flonicamid is an insecticide which is frequently used in agriculture practices these days. However the excessive use of this chemical insecticide exhibit toxic effects on ecosystem as well as on mammals. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate flonicamid median lethal dose which is 180 mg/kg body weight. Further, investigations involved the repeated oral administration of safe dose of flonicamid i.e 18 mg/kg body weight /day to various groups of rabbits alone, in combination with vitamin C and E for partial sub chronic study of 30 days. Significant increase (P<0.05) in hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed whereas animal body weight, serum protein and serum albumin exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05) in rabbits given only flonicamid. In addition, histological examination of liver tissues of treated rabbits showed alterations of hepatocytes morphology from severe level to mild depending upon type of treatment either given flonicamid only or co-administered with vitamin C/vitamin E. We conclude that supplementation of vitamin C alone and in combination with vitamin E each at 100 mg/kg body weight/day dose significantly reduces the toxicopathetic effects of flonicamid in exposed rabbits and ameliorates the hepatic marker enzymes as well as histological aspects of liver tissues near the control group.