ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Environmental Effects of International Tourism in Mediterranean European Countries: a Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis
Yilmaz Bayar 1  
,   Emre Sakar 2  
,   Tugba Betul Ozav 3  
 
More details
Hide details
1
Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Public Finance, Bandirma/Balikesir, Turkey
2
Usak University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Public Finance, Usak-Turkey
3
Izmir Katip Celebi University, Institute of Social Sciences, Izmir-Turkey
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Yilmaz Bayar   

Department of Economics, Usak Univesity Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Izmir Yolu, 64100, Usak, Turkey
Submission date: 2020-05-28
Final revision date: 2020-08-01
Acceptance date: 2020-08-02
Online publication date: 2020-12-02
Publication date: 2021-02-05
 
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(2):1539–1547
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Tourism sector has become one of the largest export items in the globalized world and in turn an item of national income for the countries. However, the globally expanding tourism sector may lead to negative impacts such as environmental degradation, and detrimental effects on social and cultural values despite its positive effects on economic growth, employment, and balance of payments. In the study, we explore the short and long run effects of international tourism and real gross domestic product on environment proxied by carbon dioxide emissions in Mediterranean European states over the period of 1995-2018, using second generation cointegration and causality tests. The short run analysis revealed a one-way causality from real gross domestic product to carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the long run analysis indicated that international tourism had a positive influence on carbon dioxide emissions in Italy and Slovenia and real gross domestic product had a positive influence on carbon dioxide emissions in most of the countries in the sample.
eISSN:2083-5906
ISSN:1230-1485