Adoption of Environment-Friendly Climate Smart Agricultural Practices and Prevailing Constraints: Policy Implications for Cotton Growers of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Studies, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Punjab-Pakistan
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Punjab-Pakistan
Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Punjab-Pakistan
Submission date: 2023-09-29
Final revision date: 2023-11-13
Acceptance date: 2024-01-06
Online publication date: 2024-03-28
Publication date: 2024-04-09
Corresponding author
Ejaz Ashraf   

Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Studies, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Punjab-Pakistan, Pakistan
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2024;33(3):3067-3078
Presently, the agricultural system and crops related to the environment are highly vulnerable to climatic variations in many regions of the world. Major crops are under serious threat due to floods and temperature variations in Pakistan. There is a serious need to disseminate climate smart agricultural knowledge for the farmers of Pakistan at urgency level for fast adoption of Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (CSAPs). This study mainly focuses on the adoption of CSAPs and associated constraints, which restrain the adoption rate. We selected 400 cotton farmers using a formula suggested by Kesley and Kumar (1989) for an unknown population from two very important cotton producing districts (Khanewal and Vehari). Interview schedule was used for data collection. The study explored that institutional role is very critical for adoption of CSAPs. In addition, economic barriers, lack of trained extension field staff, lack of training opportunities and lack of climate smart agricultural technologies and knowledge for cotton growers are the main constraints in the adoption of CSAPs. Hence, awareness, provision of timely information and training, continuous repeated coordination with cotton growers and reducing all constraints are the keys for approval of CSAPs to deal with climate variations. Policy recommendations included: government should provide policy support for research and development activities focusing on CSAPs. Government should provide support to extension services in order to educate and train farmers for CSAPs. The adoption of CSAPs may require additional financial resources. The government should provide financial support to farmers to encourage them to adopt these practices. This can be done through subsidies, grants and other financial incentives. Climate change is leading to water scarcity in Pakistan and this is affecting agricultural productivity. The government should promote water conservation practices such as rain water harvesting, drip irrigation and water efficient crops to ensure sustainable use of water resources. The adoption of CSAPs requires strong collaboration and partnerships among the stakeholders, including government, farmers, research institutions, NGOs and private sector. The government should promote collaboration and partnerships to facilitate the adoption of CSAPs.
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